Ecofriendly Route for the Synthesis of Highly Conductive Graphene Using Extremophiles for Green Electronics and Bioscience

Authors

  • Sreejith Raveendran,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Neha Chauhan,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Yoshikata Nakajima,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Higashi Toshiaki,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Shunji Kurosu,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Yuji Tanizawa,

    1. Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi, Japan
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  • Ryugo Tero,

    1. Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi, Japan
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  • Yasuhiko Yoshida,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Tatsuro Hanajiri,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Toru Maekawa,

    1. Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • Pulickel. M. Ajayan,

    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering & Material Science Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
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  • Adarsh Sandhu,

    Corresponding author
    1. Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi, Japan
    2. Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center Tokyo Institute of Technology 2–12–1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo, Japan
    • Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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  • D. Sakthi Kumar

    Corresponding author
    • Bio-Nano Electronics Research Center Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Saitama, Japan
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E-mail: sandhu@eiiris.tut.ac.jp, sakthi@toyo.jp

Abstract

Highly conductive biocompatible graphene is synthesized using ecofriendly reduction of graphene oxide (GO). Two strains of non-pathogenic extremophilic bacteria are used for reducing GO under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Degree of reduction and quality of bacterially reduced graphene oxide (BRGO) are monitored using UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Structural morphology and variation in thickness are characterized using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Electrical measurements by three-probe method reveal that the conductivity has increased by 104–105 fold from GO to BRGO. Biocompatibility assay using mouse fibroblast cell line shows that BRGO is non-cytotoxic and has a tendency to support as well as enhance the cell growth under laboratory conditions. Hereby, a cost effective, non-toxic bulk reduction of GO to biocompatible graphene for green electronics and bioscience application is achieved using halophilic extremophiles for the first time.

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