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Keywords:

  • graphene;
  • quantum dots;
  • nanostructures;
  • nanotechnology;
  • carbon

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are nanometer-sized fragments of graphene that show unique properties, which makes them interesting candidates for a whole range of new applications. This review article gives an overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of GQDs. Synthesis methods discussed include top-down and bottom-up approaches. Properties such as luminescence up- and down-conversion have been used in applications ranging from energy conversion to bio-analytics. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art and highlights promising findings as well as potential future directions of the research field.