Mesoporous carbon materials have attracted much attention during the past two decades in fields such as energy conversion and storage, gas storage, and medical science. In this progress report, the recent advances of mesoporous-carbon-based nanomaterials are presented for fuel cells, lithium batteries, and supercapacitors. A brief discussion of the recent development of synthetic methodologies of mesoporous-carbon-based materials is first introduced. Detailed descriptions of the electrochemical properties are stated in each of mesoporous-carbon-based materials. Furthermore, comparisons of different mesoporous carbon materials in the same application field are summarized in a table, and some conclusions and disciplines are stated, which may be useful to guide the future studies. Comments on the challenges and perspectives of mesoporous-carbon-based materials are proposed for further development.