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Keywords:

  • cell filamentation;
  • cytotoxicity;
  • leaching;
  • undissolved solids;
  • zinc oxide nanoparticles
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce transient morphological transformation in Escherichia coli from the native ∼ 2–4 μm rods to 20–40 μm filamentous cells as reported by Rose Amal and co-workers. The filamentation is induced only in response to the solid ZnO residues, while non-observable in the presence of the leached zincpeptide complexes. Free zinc ions induce severe cell rupturing.