As a cathode reaction in fuel cells, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) plays a critical role in determining the overall performance of a fuel cell. It is still a big challenge to find effective ways to improve the catalytic activity, efficiency, and especially stability of ORR electrocatalysts. In the present study, single nanoparticle electrocatalysis for ORR is realized for the first time by encaging PtPd nanocube in hollow and porous carbon nanosphere (PtPd@HCS). Through tuning the carbon-shell thickness by carbonization temperature, the effects of carbon-shell thickness on ORR catalytic performance of PtPd@HCS are systematically investigated. The PtPd@HCS calcinated at 800 °C (PtPd@HCS-800) with the thinnest carbon shell (3.52 nm) and rich pore structure exhibits enhanced ORR catalytic activity and stability. The strategy mentioned here is expected to provide a new method to design single nanoparticle electrocatalysts for fuel cells with high catalytic performance and reduced loading of precious metals.