Particle & Particle Systems Characterization

Cover image for Particle & Particle Systems Characterization

Special Issue: X-ray Diffraction

May, 2006

Volume 22, Issue 6

Pages 361–433

Issue edited by: Michael Herrmann

    1. Editorial: Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 6/2005 (pages 365–366)

      M. Herrmann

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200590007

    2. Observation and Characterization of Structural Phase Transitions by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (pages 367–377)

      Wulf Depmeier

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501038

      Some of the basic properties of powder diffraction are summarized after a short introduction into the theory. Than it is described phenomenologically how various kinds of structural transformations affect the powder diffraction pattern. This is achieved on emphasizing that diffraction studies on powders are statistically more sound than those on single crystals, thus allowing the reliable determination of the generic properties of a given crystal structure.

    3. State-of-the-art of Multilayer Optics for Laboratory X-ray Devices (pages 378–383)

      Frank Hertlein, Alexandra Oehr, Christian Hoffmann, Carsten Michaelsen and Jörg Wiesmann

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501000

      Multilayer X-ray optics with single layers of a few nanometers thickness can be obtained and are used in X-ray diffractometers (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF) and at synchrotron sources. A detailed description of the production using sputter deposition methods is presented. Finally, the advantages of multilayer X-ray optics in typical X-ray analytical applications are summarized.

    4. Capillary Optics in X-Ray Analytics (pages 384–390)

      Aniouar Bjeoumikhov, Semfira Bjeoumikhova and Reiner Wedell

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501004

      Capillary optics are based on the principle of total external reflection on smooth surfaces in capillary systems. Optical elements using single and multiple reflections are relatively efficient and in some cases irreplaceable instruments for beam shaping of X-radiation from laboratory sources as well as of synchrotron radiation.

    5. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (pages 391–396)

      Bernd Kämpfe, Falk Luczak and Bernd Michel

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501007

      The important advantage of energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction is the opportunity to obtain diffraction patterns without the use of any goniometer. Thus, a combination of small power X-ray tubes, appropriate X-ray optics and high energy-resolution detectors enables the construction of small and transportable measurement devices also for mobile use. Specimens of different size, shape, and geometry can be investigated.

    6. Application of Two-Dimensional Detectors in X-ray Diffraction Materials Structure Analysis (pages 397–400)

      Jaroslav Fiala and Michal Kolega

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501001

      The examination of the azimuthal (lateral) diffraction line profile, i.e. the size, number and shape of individual diffraction spots that discontinuous diffraction line consist of, reveals some useful information on the materials structure which cannot be obtained by other techniques. Such an information can be used in the development and optimization of technological processes as well as in the monitoring of processes which degrade the materials structure in course of their service.

    7. Microstructure of Energetic Particles Investigated by X-ray Powder Diffraction (pages 401–406)

      Michael Herrmann

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501005

      Incorporation of improved particle qualities reduces the sensitivity of plastic bonded explosives. Investigations using Powder X-ray Diffraction for the characterization of the microstructure of energetic nitramine. Qualities can be distinguished in terms of particle size and micro strain by means of powder X-ray diffraction. The investigations revealed that sensitivity of RDX correlates with crystallite size, where insensitive particles consist of larger and fewer crystallites than the conventional product. The HMX qualities were found to be micro strain and crystallite size driven.

    8. In-situ Investigation during Tempering of a High Speed Steel with X-ray Diffraction (pages 407–417)

      Manfred Wießner, Siegfried Kleber and Alfred Kulmburg

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501002

      The combined use of a X-ray diffractometer and a high temperature chamber allows in-situ determination of microstructure during heat treatment. X-ray diffractograms are recorded during the tempering of high speed steels. The Rietveld method is applied in connection with size-strain analysis. Lattice parameters of austenite and martensite are the basis to estimate the change of carbon content which has a massive influence on the secondary hardening.

    9. Temperature Resolved X-ray Diffraction for the Investigation of the Phase Transitions of FOX-7 (pages 418–422)

      P. B. Kempa and M. Herrmann

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501006

      The phase behavior of 1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene (FOX-7) was investigated by means of temperature resolved X-ray powder diffraction. Three phases were observed, and α- and β-FOX-7 were identified by X-ray diffraction. The α/β-transition is completely reversible, and the γ/α-transition on cooling revealed to be incomplete. A fourth phase which is described in literature was not found.

    10. Real-time XRD Investigations During the Formation of Cu(IngGa)Se2 Thin Films (pages 423–426)

      Frank Hergert, Stefan Jost, Rainer Hock and Michael Purwins

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200501003

      The quaternary compound Cu(In,Ga)Se2 is technically applied as a light absorbing material in thin film solar cells. The synthesis of the absorber material during rapid thermal annealing of stacked elemental layers and, additionally, the annealing of selenide bilayers has been investigated to explore the formation process of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 to optimize the production process.

    11. Author Index 2005 (page 433)

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.200590010