• 1
    Henderson-Smart DJ, Pettigrew AG, Campbell DJ. Clinical apnea and brain-stem neural function in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 3537.
  • 2
    Gerhardt T, Bancalari E. Apnea of prematurity. 1. Lung function and regulation of breathing. Pediatrics 1984; 74: 5862.
  • 3
    Martin RJ, DiFiore JM, Jana L, Davis RL, Miller MJ, Coles SK, Dick TE. Persistence of the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia in preterm infants. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 960964.
  • 4
    Hertzberg T, Lagercrantz H. Postnatal sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreceptors in newborn infants. Arch Dis Child 1987; 62: 1238e41.
  • 5
    Bamford OS, Sterni LM, Wasicko MJ, Montrose MH, Carroll JL. Postnatal maturation of carotid body and type I cell chemoreception in the rat. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: L875 e84.
  • 6
    Kholwadwala D, Donnelly DF. Maturation of carotid chemoreceptor sensitivity to hypoxia: in vitro studies in the newborn rat. J Physiol 1992; 453: 461 e73.
  • 7
    Jansen AH, Ioffe S, Russell BJ, Chernick V. Effect of carotid chemoreceptor denervation on breathing in utero and after birth. J Appl Physiol 1981; 51: 630e3.
  • 8
    Carroll JL, Kim I. Postnatal development of carotid body glomus cell O2 sensitivity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2005; 149: 201215.
  • 9
    Williams BA, Smyth J, Boon AW, Hanson MA, Kumar P, Blanco CE. Development of respiratory chemoreflexes in response to alternations of fractional inspired oxygen in the newborn infant. J Physiol 1991; 442: 81 e90.
  • 10
    Peng Y-J, Rennison J, Prabhakar NR. Intermittent hypoxia augments carotid body and ventilatory response to hypoxia in neonatal rat pups. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 20202025.
  • 11
    Cardot V, Chardon K, Tourneux P, Micallef S, Stéphan E, Léké A, Bach V, Libert JP, Telliez F. Ventilatory response to a hyperoxic test is related to the frequency of short apneic episodes in late preterm neonates. Pediatr Res 2007; 62: 591596.
  • 12
    Al-Matary A, Kutbi I, Qurashi M, Khalil M, Alvaro R, Kwiatkowski K, Cates D, Rigatto H. Increased peripheral chemoreceptor activity may be critical in destabilizing breathing in neonates. Semin Perinatol 2004; 28: 264272.
  • 13
    Nock ML, Di Fiore JM, Arko K, Martin RJ. Relationship of the ventilatory response to hypoxia with neonatal apnea in preterm infants. J Pediatr 2004; 144: 291295.
  • 14
    Khan A, Mansour Q, Kim K, Don C, Henrique R. Measurement of the CO2 apneic threshold in newborn infants: possible relevance for periodic breathing and apnea. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98: 11711176.
  • 15
    Mitchell GS, Baker TL, Nanda SA, Fuller DD, Zabka AG, Hodgeman BA, Bavis RW, Mack KJ, Olson EB Jr. Intermittent hypoxia and respiratory plasticity. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 24662475.
  • 16
    Gozal D, Reeves SR, Row BW, Neville JJ, Guo SZ, Lipton AJ. Respiratory effects of gestational intermittent hypoxia in the developing rat. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 15401547.
  • 17
    Pickens DL, Schefft D, Thach BT. Prolonged apnea associated with upper airway protective reflexes in apnea of prematurity. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 1130118.
  • 18
    St-Hilaire M, Samson N, Duvareille C, Praud JP. Laryngeal stimulation by an acid solution in the pre-term lamb. Adv Exp Med Biol 2008; 605: 154158.
  • 19
    Duke SG, Postma GN, McGuirt WF Jr, Ririe D, Averill DB, Koufman JA. Laryngospasm and diaphragmatic arrest in immature dogs after laryngeal acid exposure: a possible model for sudden infant death syndrome. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2001; 110: 729733.
  • 20
    Miller MJ, Difiore JM. A comparison of swallowing during apnea and periodic breathing in premature infants. Pediatr Res 1995; 37: 796.
  • 21
    Kianicka I, Diaz V, Dorian D, Praud JP. Coordination between glottic adductor muscle and diaphragm EMG activity in fetal lambs in utero. J Appl Physiol 1998; 84: 15601565.
  • 22
    Renolleau S, Letourneau P, Niyonsenga T, Praud JP, Gagne B. Thyroarytenoid muscle electrical activity during spontaneous apneas in preterm lambs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 159: 13961404.
  • 23
    Abu-Shaweesh JM, Baired TM, Martin RJ. Apnea of prematurity. In: GreenoughA, MilnerAD, editors. Neonatal respiratory disorders. 2nd ed. London, UK: Arnold Health Science; 2003.
  • 24
    Dorostkar PC, Arko MK, Baird TM, Rodriguez S, Martin RJ. Asystole and severe bradycardia in preterm infants. Biol Neonate 2005; 88: 299305. Epub 2005 Aug 18.
  • 25
    Henderson-Smart DJ, Butcher-Puech MC, Edwards DA. Incidence and mechanism of bradycardia during apnoea in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 1986; 61: 227232.
  • 26
    Martin RJ, Wilson CG, Abu-Shaweesh JM, Haxhiu MA. Role of inhibitory neurotransmitter interactions in the pathogenesis of neonatal apnea: implications for management. Semin Perinatol 2004; 28: 273278.
  • 27
    Abu-Shaweesh JM. Maturation of respiratory reflex responses in the fetus and neonate. Semin Neonatol 2004; 9: 169180.
  • 28
    Tyzio R, Holmes GL, Ben-Ari Y, Khazipov R. Timing of the developmental switch in GABA(A) mediated signaling from excitation to inhibition in CA3 rat hippocampus using gramicidin perforated patch and extracellular recordings. Epilepsia 48 Suppl 2007; 5: 96105.
  • 29
    Cherubini E, Gaiarsa JL, Ben-Ari Y. GABA: an excitatory transmitter in early postnatal life. Trends Neurosci 1991; 14: 515519.
  • 30
    Zhang L, Wilson CG, Liu S, et al. Hypercapnia-induced activation of brainstem GABAergic neurons during early development. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2003; 136: 2537.
  • 31
    Miller MJ, Haxhiu MA, Haxhiu-Poskurica B, Dreshaj IA, DiFiore JM, Martin RJ. Recurrent hypoxic exposure and reflex responses during development in the piglet. Respir Physiol 2000; 123: 5161.
  • 32
    Abu-Shaweesh JM, Dreshaj IA, Thomas AJ, Haxhiu MA, Strohl KP, Martin RJ. Changes in respiratory timing induced by hypercapnia in maturing rats. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 484490.
  • 33
    Abu-Shaweesh JM, Dreshaj IA, Haxhiu MA, et al. Central GABAergic mechanisms are involved in superior laryngeal nerve stimulation-induced apnea. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 15701576.
  • 34
    Lee JC, Stoll BG, Downing SE. Properties of the laryngeal chemoreflex in neonatal piglets. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1977; 233: R30R36.
  • 35
    Runold M, Lagercrantz H, Fredholm BB. Ventilatory effect of an adenosine analog in unanesthetized rabbits during development. J Appl Physiol 1986; 61: 255259.
  • 36
    Wilson CG, Martin RJ, Jaber M, Abu-Shaweesh J, Jafri A, Haxhiu MA, Zaidi S. Adenosine A2A receptors interact with GABAergic pathways to modulate respiration in neonatal piglets. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2004; 141: 201206.
  • 37
    Abu-Shaweesh JM. Activation of central adenosine A2A receptors enhances superior laryngeal nerve stimulation-induced apnea in piglets via a GABAergic pathway. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103: 12051211.
  • 38
    Zaidi SIA, Jafri A, Martin RJ, Haxhiu MA. Adenosine A2A receptors are expressed by GABAergic neurons of medulla oblongata in developing rat. Brain Res 2006; 1071: 4253.
  • 39
    Fellin T, Pascual O, Gobbo S, Pozzan T, Haydon PG, Carmignoto G. Neuronal synchrony mediated by astrocytic glutamate through activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Neuron 2004; 43: 729743. [Erratum in: Neuron 2005;45(1):177].
  • 40
    Hulsmann S, Oku Y, Zhang W, Richter DW. Metabolic coupling between glia and neurons is necessary for maintaining respiratory activity in transverse medullary slices of neonatal mouse. Eur J Neurosci 2000; 12: 856862.
  • 41
    Young JK, Dreshaj IA, Wilson CG, Martin RJ, Zaidi SI, Haxhiu MA. An astrocyte toxin influences the pattern of breathing and the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in neonatal rats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2005; 147: 1930.
  • 42
    Gaultier C, Amiel J, Dauger S, Trang H, Lyonnet S, Gallego J, Simonneau M. Genetics and early disturbances of breathing control. Pediatr Res 2004; 55: 729733.
  • 43
    Gozal D. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: an update. Pediatr Pulmonol 1998; 26: 273282.
  • 44
    Tamim H, Khogali M, Beydoun H, Melki I, Yunis K. National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network. Consanguinity and apnea of prematurity. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 942946.
  • 45
    Ohlsson A, Kayhan G, Lagercrantz H, Herlenius E. Il-1β depresses respiration and anoxic survival via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway in neonatal rats. Pediatr Res 2003; 54: 326331.
  • 46
    Hofstetter AO, Saha S, Siljehav V, Jakobsson P-J, Herlenius E. The induced prostaglandin E2 pathway is a key regulator of the respiratory response to infection and hypoxia in neonates. PNAS 2007; 104: 98949899.
  • 47
    DiFiore JM, Arko M, Whitehouse M, Kimball A, Martin RJ. Apnea is not prolonged by acid gastroesophageal reflux [GER] in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2005; 116: 10591063.
  • 48
    Slocum C, Hibbs AM, Martin RJ, Orenstein SR. Infant apnea and gastroesophageal reflux: a critical review and framework for further investigation. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2007; 9: 219224.
  • 49
    Peter CS, Sprodowski N, Bohnhorst B, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux and apnea of prematurity: no temporal relationship. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 811.
  • 50
    Vandenplas Y, Salvatore S, Vieira MC, Hauser B. Will esophageal impedance replace pH monitoring? Pediatrics 2007; 119: 118122.
  • 51
    Gilmore MM. Preterm VLBW infants: post-extubation respiratory support [editorial]. J Perinatol 2006; 26: 449451.
  • 52
    Herlenius E, Lagercrantz H, Yamamoto Y. Adenosine modulates inspiratory neurons and the respiratory pattern in the brainstem of neonatal rats. Pediatr Res 1997; 42: 4653.
  • 53
    Mayer CA, Haxhiu MA, Martin RJ, Wilson CG. Adenosine A2A receptors mediate GABAergic inhibition of respiration in immature rats. J Appl Physiol 2006; 100: 9197.
  • 54
    Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 21122121.
  • 55
    Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group. Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 18931902.
  • 56
    Turner CP, Seli M, Ment L, Stewart W, Yan H, Johansson B, Fredholm BB, Blackburn M, Rivkees SA. A1 adenosine receptors mediate hypoxia-induced ventriculomegaly. PNAS 2003; 100: 1171811722.
  • 57
    Back SA, Craig A, Luo NL, Ren J, Akundi RS, Ribeiro I, Rivkees SA. Protective effects of caffeine on chronic hypoxia-induced perinatal white matter injury. Ann Neurol 2006; 60: 696705.
  • 58
    Bucher HU, Duc G. Does caffeine prevent hypoxaemic episodes in premature infants? Eur J Pediatr 1988; 147: 288291.
  • 59
    Bohnhorst B, Gill D, Dordelmann M, Peter CS, Poets CF. Bradycardia and desaturation during skin-to-skin care: no relationship to hyperthermia. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 199502.
  • 60
    Lehtonen L, Martin RJ. Ontogeny of sleep and awake states in relation to breathing in preterm infants. Semin Neonatol 2004; 9: 229238.
  • 61
    Bhat RY, Hanam S, Pressler R, Rafferty GF, Peacock JL, Greenough A. Effect of prone and supine position on sleep, apneas, and arousal in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2006; 118: 101107.
  • 62
    Al-Saif S, Alvaro R, Manfreda J, Kwiatkowski K, Cates D, Rigatto H. Inhalation of low (0.5%–1.5%) CO2 as a potential treatment for apnea of prematurity. Semin Perinatol 2001; 25: 100106.
  • 63
    Ramanathan R, Corwin MJ, Hunt CE, Lister G, Tinsley LR, Baird T, Silvestri JM, Crowell DH, Hufford D, Martin RJ, Newman MR, Weese-Mayer DE, Cupples LA, Peucker M, Willinger M, Keens TG for the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation [CHIME] Study Group. Cardiorespiratory events recorded on home monitors: comparison of healthy infants with those at increased risk for SIDS. JAMA 2001; 285: 21992207.
  • 64
    DiFiore JM, Arko MK, Miller MJ, Krauss A, Betkerur A, Zadell A, Kenney SR, Martin RJ. Cardioresiratory events in preterm infants referred for apnea monitoring studies. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 13041308.
  • 65
    Amin SB, Charafeddine L, Guillet R. Transient bilirubin encephalopathy and apnea of prematurity in 28 to 32 weeks gestational age infants. J Perinatol 2005; 25: 386390.
  • 66
    Mesner O, Miller MJ, Iben SC, Mayer CA, Martin RJ. Hyperbilirubinemia diminishes respirations in rat pup model. E-PAS 2006; 59: 4830.89.
  • 67
    DiFiore JM, Hack M, Arko M, Minich MN, Martin RJ. Persistent apnea of prematurity among very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1.5 kg): demographic and neonatal correlates. E-PAS 2004; 55: 2991.
  • 68
    Janvier A, Kharry M, Kokkotis A, Cormier C, Messmer D, Barrington KJ. Apnea is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in very low birth weight infants. J Perinatol 2004; 24: 7637768.
  • 69
    Pillekamp F, Hermann C, Keller T, von Gontard A, Kribs A, Roth B. Factors influencing apnea and bradycardia of prematurity—implications for neurodevelopment. Neonatology 2007; 91: 155161.
  • 70
    Hunt CE, Corwin MJ, Baird T, Tinsley LR, Palmer P, Ramanathan R, Crowell DH, Schafer S, Martin RJ, Hufford D, Peucker M, Weese-Mayer DE, Silvestri JM, Neuman MR, Cantey-Kiser J, Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation [CHIME] Study Group. Cardiorespiratory events detected by home memory monitoring and one-year neurodevelopmental outcome. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 465471.
  • 71
    Ratner V, Kishkurno SV, Slinko SK, Sosunov SA, Sosunov AA, Polin RA, Ten VS. The contribution of intermittent hypoxemia to late neurological handicap in mice with hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Neonatology 2007; 92: 5058.
  • 72
    Rosen CL, Larkin EK, Kirchner HL, Emancipator JL, Bivins SF, Surovec SA, Martin RJ, Redline S. Prevalence and risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in 8 to 11 year-old children: association with race and prematurity. J Pediatr 2003; 142: 383389.