The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare relevant to this manuscript and no funds were received for the preparation of this review.
State of the Art
Article first published online: 5 DEC 2008
Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 44, Issue 1, pages 31–37, January 2009
How to Cite
Uyan, Z.S., Carraro, S., Piacentini, G. and Baraldi, E. (2009), Swimming pool, respiratory health, and childhood asthma: Should we change our beliefs?. Pediatr. Pulmonol., 44: 31–37. doi: 10.1002/ppul.20947
E.B. in August 2007 attended a workshop organized in Leuven by the Research Foundation for Health and Environmental Effects supported by a grant from the World Chlorine Council.
- Issue published online: 22 DEC 2008
- Article first published online: 5 DEC 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 SEP 2008
- Manuscript Revised: 10 SEP 2008
- Manuscript Received: 18 JUN 2008
- swimming pool;
- chlorine exposure
Swimming is often recommended as a sport because of its several benefits to health. It is also recommended in asthmatic children as a sport with a lower potential for prompting exercise-induced asthma. However, there is growing interest in the potentially harmful effects of repeated respiratory tract exposure to chlorinated products and the problem of possible swimming-related health hazards is gaining importance at international level. It is already known that acute exposure to chlorine gas as in swimming pool accidents causes lung damage and also that elite swimmers may have increased airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity, probably as a result of repeated exposure to chlorine derivatives. Recently some studies have been conducted to investigate whether repeated exposure to chlorine by-products in recreational swimmers might also lead to lung damage. In addition, some studies have been lately published on the even more debated issue of the possible harmful effects of baby swimming on respiratory health. This article reviews and discusses data from the literature on the effects of chlorine derivatives in different categories of people routinely attending swimming pools. The need for longitudinal studies is emphasized to definitely clarify any role of chlorinated swimming pool attendance in the development of asthma in recreational swimmers. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:31–37. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.