Asthma is a chronic and recurrent disease. Its high prevalence around the world is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The genetic aspects of susceptibility, severity, and response to treatment in asthma are of great scientific interest. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between the Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly alleles of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with respect to the susceptibility to and severity of asthma, as well as the response to treatment in mestizo schoolchildren. 109 schoolchildren with asthma diagnosis and 137 asymptomatic controls were genotyped for the Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu alleles of the ADRB2 gene by minisequencing. Allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies of the ADRB2 gene between asthmatic and non-asthmatic as well as demographic, clinical, and spirometric variables among asthmatic patients according to their genotype were compared. ADRB2 gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. No statistical differences were found in allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies of the ADRB2 gene between cases and controls. We did not find differences between asthmatic patients classified according to their ADRB2 genotypes and haplotypes when evaluating demographic, clinical, and spirometric variables. The ADRB2 genotype and haplotype are not associated with spirometric responses or ADRB2 gene expression after administration of a β-2 agonist plus a glucocorticoid. These results suggest that in the group of mestizo schoolchildren studied, the Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms are not markers of susceptibility or severity of asthma and do not affect ADRB2 gene expression during the rescue therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012. 47:848–855. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.