Authors' Contributions: Chiang Wen Chin is the main author of this paper. Chen Yu Ming is the study statistician. Chiang Wen Chin, Chay Oh Moh, Anne Goh, and Teoh Oon Hoe are the primary physicians in the department of Respiratory and Allergy. Henry Tan and Balakrishnan are from the department of Ortholaryngology. Lim Hwee Hoon is the Allergy Nurse practitioner. Goh Si Hui and Wen Yin Loh are Allergy registrars. All physicians were referred patients with significant rhinitis symptoms for evaluation.
Original Article: Other
Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 47, Issue 10, pages 1026–1033, October 2012
How to Cite
Chiang, W. C., Chen, Y. M., Tan, H. K.K., Balakrishnan, A., Liew, W. K., Lim, H. H., Goh, S. H., Loh, W. Y., Wong, P., Teoh, O. H., Goh, A. and Chay, O. M. (2012), Allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis in children in the tropics: Prevalence and risk associations. Pediatr. Pulmonol., 47: 1026–1033. doi: 10.1002/ppul.22554
Conflicts of interest: None.
- Issue published online: 12 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 21 OCT 2011
- none reported
- allergic rhinitis;
- risk associations;
- non-allergic rhinitis;
The age-related comparative prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) in children is poorly defined. We aimed to characterize AR and NAR in children.
This study enrolled children with chronic rhinitis who presented to a tertiary paediatric center for a diagnostic skin prick test (SPT). Parents completed a medical history questionnaire for their child, including disease activity for asthma and rhinitis. Sociodemographic data was obtained and all participants underwent a common inhalant SPT panel. A positive SPT indicated AR.
From March 2001 to March 2009, 6,660 children (64% male) were enrolled (aged 6 months to 19 years, mean 7.82 years). Only 3.7% (249) of the children were <2 years old, and almost 30% of these had AR. Most children with AR (73%) presented after age 6.
Males were more likely to have AR (vs. NAR) (OR 1.5; CI 1.39–1.77). Antihistamine and salbutamol use did not differ between children with AR and NAR. Children with AR were more likely to require adjunct therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (51.2% vs. 43.2%, P < 0.001), have drug hypersensitivity (especially antipyretic drugs) (2.5% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.384) or an asthma admission (9.1% vs. 6.0%, P < 0.001).
AR is more common in male children, is relatively rare below the age of 2 years, and accounts for two-thirds of all childhood chronic rhinitis and 73.3% of all chronic rhinitis in school-aged children (≥6 years old). Children with AR have more severe rhinitis symptoms and more often suffer from asthma-related events and admissions. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012. 47:1026–1033. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.