• Autoantibody microarrays;
  • Bioinformatics;
  • Forward-phase microarrays;
  • Multiplex;
  • Reverse-phase microarrays


Protein microarrays are an increasingly powerful technology in the hunt for new and novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Lending credit to the highly established DNA microarray, protein microarrays are versatile tools that utilize a variety of formats to facilitate the discovery of new biomarkers and our understanding of disease pathways. The aims of this review are: to detail a variety of protein microarray technologies currently used, including forward-phase technologies and reverse-phase technologies useful in both the discovery and validation of candidate biomarkers; to explore the strengths and weaknesses of various proteomic microarray platforms; to explain how bioinformatics helps compare data between microarray data sets; and to discuss the downstream applications of such technologies as they relate to the development of a highly personalized approach to medicine.