Multiple sclerosis is characterized by inflammatory demyelination and axonal loss as pathophysiological correlates of relapsing activity and progressive development of clinical disability. The molecular processes involved in this pathogenesis are still unclear as they are quite complex and heterogeneous. In this article we present protein expression analysis of brain and spinal cord tissues from different models of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used animal model for multiple sclerosis. We observed a number of EAE-specific protein expression and PTM differences. Proteome analysis was extended to multiple sclerosis specimens in order to validate the EAE findings. Our findings suggest the regulation of a number of proteins that shed light on the molecular mechanisms of the disease processes taking place in EAE and multiple sclerosis. We found consistent modulation of proteins including serum amyloid P component, sirtuin 2, dihydropyrimidinase-related protein family proteins, stathmin 1, creatine kinase B and chloride intracellular channel protein 1. Functional classification of the proteins by database and the literature mining reveals their association with neuronal development and myelinogenesis, suggesting possible disease processes that mediate neurodegeneration.