EuroKUP (Urine and Kidney Proteomics; www.eurokup.org) is a COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical research: www.cost.esf.org Action fostering a multi-disciplinary network of investigators from 25 countries and focusing on facilitating translational proteomic research in kidney diseases. Four Working Groups focusing respectively on defining clinically important research questions in kidney diseases, kidney tissue proteomics, urine proteomics and bioinformatics have been generated. The EuroKUP members had their second combined Working Group and Management Committee (MC) meeting in Nafplio, Greece from March 29 to 30, 2009. This report summarizes the main presentations, discussions and agreed action points during this meeting. These refer to the design of collaborative projects and clinical center networks for specific kidney diseases; establishment of guidelines for kidney tissue proteomics analysis by laser-based imaging- and laser capture microdissection-MS; development and characterization of a “standard” urine specimen to be used for assessment of platform capability and data comparability in clinical proteomics applications; definition of statistical requirements in biomarker discovery studies; and development of a specialized kidney and urine ontology. Various training activities are planned involving training schools on laser capture microdissection- and imaging-MS, workshops on ontologies as well as short-term travel grants for junior investigators.