• 2-D DIGE;
  • Deep proteome;
  • Heart failure;
  • Plasma;


Heart failure (HF) remains a severe disease with a poor prognosis. HF biomarkers may include demographic features, cardiac imaging, or genetic polymorphisms but this term is commonly applied to circulating serum or plasma analytes. Biomarkers may have at least three clinical uses in the context of HF: diagnosis, risk stratification, and guidance in the selection of therapy. Proteomic studies on HF biomarkers can be designed as case/control using clinical endpoints; alternatively, left ventricular remodeling can be used as a surrogate endpoint. The type of samples (tissue, cells, serum or plasma) used for proteomic analysis is a key factor in the research of biomarkers. Since the final aim is the discovery of circulating biomarkers, and since plasma and serum samples are easily accessible, proteomic analysis is frequently used for blood samples. However, standardization of sampling and access to low-abundance proteins remains problematic. Although, proteomics is playing a major role in the discovery phase of biomarkers, validation in independent populations is necessary by using more specific methods. The knowledge of new HF biomarkers may allow a more personalized medicine in the future.