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Proteome analysis of biological fluids from autoimmune-rheumatological disorders

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Abstract

Autoimmune-rheumatological diseases are worldwide distributed disorders and represent a complex array of illnesses characterized by autoreactivity (reactivity against self-antigens) of T-B lymphocytes and by the synthesis of autoantibodies crucial for diagnosis (biomarkers). Yet, the effects of the autoimmune chronic inflammation on the infiltrated tissues and organs generally lead to profound tissue and organ damage with loss of function (i.e., lung, kidney, joints, exocrine glands). Although progresses have been made on the knowledge of these disorders, much still remains to be investigated on their pathogenesis and identification of new biomarkers useful in clinical practice. The rationale of using proteomics in autoimmune-rheumatological diseases has been the unmet need to collect, from biological fluids that are easily obtainable, a summary of the final biochemical events that represent the effects of the interplay between immune cells, mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis of these fluids shows encouraging results and in this review, we addressed four major autoimmune-rheumatological diseases investigated through proteomic techniques and provide evidence-based data on the highlights obtained in systemic sclerosis, primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

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