Aptamers are functional oligonucleotides of single-stranded RNA or DNA that can selectively recognize their targets with high affinity. Hence, they have been widely developed for analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in the development of aptamer-based detection systems. Aptamers can be amplified exponentially by PCR, which is one of the advantages of aptamers over antibodies. Recently, we have developed immuno-aptamers that bind to mouse or rabbit IgG and constructed a novel sensitive detection system based on a conventional ELISA, called the immuno-aptamer PCR assay. In this article, the aptamer-based ready-to-use sensors and another PCR-based aptamer assays are also described; moreover, we have discussed highly sensitive aptamer-based detection systems.