Additional corresponding author: Lili Wang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Breast cancer biomarker measurements and standards
Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications
Special Issue: REVIEWS 2013
Volume 7, Issue 1-2, pages 17–29, January 2013
How to Cite
Cole, K. D., He, H.-J. and Wang, L. (2013), Breast cancer biomarker measurements and standards. Prot. Clin. Appl., 7: 17–29. doi: 10.1002/prca.201200075
Colour Online: See the article online to view Fig. 1 in colour.
Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to foster understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
- Issue published online: 22 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 26 NOV 2012 12:44PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 9 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 31 JUL 2012
- Breast cancer;
- Epidermal growth factor receptor;
- Reference materials;
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by changes in the levels and activities of important cellular proteins, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Genetic mutations cause changes in protein activity and protein expression levels that result in the altered metabolism, proliferation, and metastasis seen in cancer cells. The identification of the critical biochemical changes in cancer has led to advances in its detection and treatment. An important example of this is the measurement of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), where increased expression occurs in approximately 20–30% of breast cancer tumors. HER2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family and is an important biomarker expressed on the cell surface. Measurement of the HER2 levels in tumor cells provides diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment information, because a targeted therapeutic is available. The most common methods to measure HER2 levels are immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays. The accurate and reliable measurements of the specific changes in protein biomarkers for detection and treatment of cancer are important challenges. This review is focused on efforts to improve the quantitation and reliability of cancer biomarkers by using standards and reference materials.