Proteomics has a wide range of applications, including determination of differences in the proteome in terms of expression and post-translational protein modifications. Redox proteomics allows the identification of specific targets of protein oxidation in a biological sample. Using proteomic techniques, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) has been found at decreased levels in subjects with a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and Down syndrome (DS) with gout subjects. ApoA-I plays roles in cholesterol transport and regulation of inflammation. Redox proteomics further showed ApoA-I to be highly oxidatively modified and particularly susceptible to modification by 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product. In the current review, we discuss the consequences of oxidation of ApoA-I in terms of neurodegeneration. ROS-associated chemotherapy related ApoA-I oxidation leads to elevation of peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) causing a signaling cascade that can contribute to neuronal death, likely a contributor to what patients refer to as “chemobrain.” Current evidence suggests ApoA-I to be a promising diagnostic marker as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies in these neurodegenerative disorders.