• Anti-angiogenic;
  • Endothelial cell;
  • Glioblastoma stem-like cells;
  • HDGF;
  • Therapeutic resistance

Glioblastomas are the most frequent adult primary brain tumors that still remain fatal despite major clinical efforts. As in other solid tumors, populations of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) endowed with tumor initiating and therapeutic resistance properties have been identified. Glioblastomas are highly vascularized tumors resulting in a rich dialog between GSCs and endothelial cells. In one direction, endothelial cells and their secreted proteins are able to sustain GSC properties while, in turn, GSCs can promote neoangiogenesis, modulate endothelial cell functions and may even transdifferentiate into endothelial cells. Accordingly, targeting tumor vasculature seems a promising issue despite incomplete and transient results obtained from anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapeutic trials. Recent findings of novel GSC-secreted molecules with pro-angiogenic properties (Semaphorin 3A, hepatoma-derived growth factor) open the path to the design of a concerted attack of glioblastoma vasculature that could overcome the development of resistance to single-targeted therapies while keeping away the toxicity of the treatments.