The illustration shows the proteomic analysis flow chart of two cell samples. Two, graphically elaborated, electropherograms provide an overall 2DE description of the protein expression profile of two cell samples with the same genotypic trait. Comparative image analysis reveals three protein spots differentially expressed, allowing the two cells phenotypes to be distinguished on the basis of their 2DE protein signature. These protein spots are then identified by nano-ESI mass-spectrometry analysis (the lower left picture shows the electrospray ionization source). The isoelectric focusing experimental procedure for electrophoretic separation of cell proteins can be seen in the background.

Cover image created by Rosa Lippolis (Institute of Biomembranes and Bioenergetics (IBBE), National Research Council (CNR) and Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy); cover design by SCHULZ Grafik-Design.