• Biomarker;
  • Glaucoma;
  • Neurodegeneration

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness; however, limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in optic nerve degeneration hinders the development of improved treatment strategies. Proteomics techniques that combine the protein chemistry, MS, and bioinformatics offer the opportunity to shed light on molecular mechanisms so that new treatment strategies can be developed for immunomodulation, neuroprotection, neurorescue, neuroregeneration, and function gain in glaucoma. The proteomics technologies also hold great promise for biomarker discovery, another important goal of glaucoma research. As much as developing new treatment strategies, molecular biomarkers are strongly needed for early diagnosis of glaucoma, prediction of its prognosis, and monitoring the responses to new treatments. It is now a decade that the proteomics analysis techniques have been using to move glaucoma research forward. This review will focus on valuable applications of proteomics in the field of glaucoma research and highlight the power of this analytical toolbox in translational and clinical research toward better characterization and improved treatment of glaucomatous neurodegeneration and discovery of glaucoma-related molecular biomarkers.