1781 Regulation of the activities of the mammalian transglutaminase family of enzymes
Cornelius Klöck and Chaitan Khosla
Mammalian transglutaminases catalyze post-translational modifications of their protein and peptide substrates at selected glutamine residues. As a group, the eight transglutaminases encoded by the human genome have diverse albeit poorly understood physiological and pathological roles. In each case, enzymatic activity is controlled on multiple levels by elaborate mechanisms. This review focuses on our emerging knowledge of the post-translational regulatory strategies, which range from cofactor binding to thiol-disulfide exchange and proteolytic activation. Of particular interest are the keratinocyte (TG1), tissue (TG2), and epidermal (TG3) transglutaminases, and Factor XIII.