We outline a set of strategies to infer protein function from structure. The overall approach depends on extensive use of homology modeling, the exploitation of a wide range of global and local geometric relationships between protein structures and the use of machine learning techniques. The combination of modeling with broad searches of protein structure space defines a “structural BLAST” approach to infer function with high genomic coverage. Applications are described to the prediction of protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions. In the context of protein–protein interactions, our structure-based prediction algorithm, PrePPI, has comparable accuracy to high-throughput experiments. An essential feature of PrePPI involves the use of Bayesian methods to combine structure-derived information with non-structural evidence (e.g. co-expression) to assign a likelihood for each predicted interaction. This, combined with a structural BLAST approach significantly expands the range of applications of protein structure in the annotation of protein function, including systems level biological applications where it has previously played little role.