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Keywords:

  • β2-microglobulin;
  • dialysis-related amyloidosis;
  • nanobodies;
  • X-ray crystallography;
  • proline isomerization;
  • protein conformation

Abstract

To investigate early intermediates of β2-microglobulin (β2m) amyloidogenesis, we solved the structure of β2m containing the amyloidogenic Pro32Gly mutation by X-ray crystallography. One nanobody (Nb24) that efficiently blocks fibril elongation was used as a chaperone to co-crystallize the Pro32Gly β2m monomer under physiological conditions. The complex of P32G β2m with Nb24 reveals a trans peptide bond at position 32 of this amyloidogenic variant, whereas Pro32 adopts the cis conformation in the wild-type monomer, indicating that the cis to trans isomerization at Pro32 plays a critical role in the early onset of β2m amyloid formation.