The aim of this study was to visualize early stage prostate cancer (Cap) in a clinical setting. In previous studies, the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for screening Cap have rarely been confirmed by well-designed multisite prostate biopsy.
The prostate glands of 90 men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were imaged by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) before transrectal ultrasound-guided 14-cores prostate biopsy. Each core was divided into three subcore fractions (total of 42 fractions) to generate a histological localization diagram, which was compared with localization-visualized DCE-MRI.
The detection rate of Cap in 57 patients with PSA < 10.0 ng/ml was 36.8% as determined by the initial biopsy. DCE-MRI uncovered 92.9% of the clinically significant Caps and its specificity was 96.2% for the first biopsy session. One case with positive DCE-MRI and a negative primary biopsy was positive with additional biopsies. All of 26 DCE-MRI positive cases had significant Cap, and two of eight patients with histological Cap and negative or equivocal imaging had significant cancer. In total, 9 of 20 cases with DCE-MRI stage T2 underwent radical prostatectomy. All of them had organ-confined disease, although 33–77% (mean 63%) of them were expected to be rated T3 or higher by Partin's table.
DCE-MRI can identify early stage Cap with high sensitivity and specificity, and can predict the histological grade to some extent. DCE-MRI prior to biopsy should be applied to younger patients with surgical indications. Otherwise, we recommend the definitive diagnosis of Cap by utilizing DCE-MRI alone. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.