• 1
    Pollak MN, Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE. Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 505518.
  • 2
    Tao Y, Pinzi V, Bourhis J, Deutsch E. Mechanisms of disease: Signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor pathway—Therapeutic perspectives in cancer. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2007; 4: 591602.
  • 3
    Wu JD, Haugk K, Woodke L, Nelson P, Coleman I, Plymate SR. Interaction of IGF signaling and the androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression. J Cell Biochem 2006; 99: 392401.
  • 4
    Krueckl SL, Sikes RA, Edlund NM, Bell RH, Hurtado-Coll A, Fazli L, Gleave ME, Cox ME. Increased insulin-like growth factor I receptor expression and signaling are components of androgen-independent progression in a lineage-derived prostate cancer progression model. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 86208629.
  • 5
    Nickerson T, Chang F, Lorimer D, Smeekens SP, Sawyers CL, Pollak M. In vivo progression of LAPC-9 and LNCaP prostate cancer models to androgen independence is associated with increased expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). Cancer Res 2001; 61: 62766280.
  • 6
    Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson P, Hennekens CH, Pollak M. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: A prospective study. Science 1998; 279: 563566.
  • 7
    Pollak M. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001; 23: 5966.
  • 8
    Majeed N, Blouin MJ, Kaplan-Lefko PJ, Barry-Shaw J, Greenberg NM, Gaudreau P, Bismar TA, Pollak M. A germ line mutation that delays prostate cancer progression and prolongs survival in a murine prostate cancer model. Oncogene 2005; 24: 47364740.
  • 9
    Venkateswaran V, Haddad AQ, Fleshner NE, Fan R, Sugar LM, Nam R, Klotz LH, Pollak M. Association of diet-induced hyperinsulinemia with accelerated growth of prostate cancer (LNCaP) xenografts. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99: 17931800.
  • 10
    Freedland SJ, Mavropoulos J, Wang A, Darshan M, Demark-Wahnefried W, Aronson WJ, Cohen P, Hwang D, Peterson B, Fields T, Pizzo SV, Isaacs WB. Carbohydrate restriction, prostate cancer growth, and the insulin-like growth factor axis. Prostate 2008; 68: 1119.
  • 11
    Ngo TH, Barnard RJ, Cohen P, Freedland S, Tran C, deGregorio F, Elshimali YI, Heber D, Aronson WJ. Effect of isocaloric low-fat diet on human LAPC-4 prostate cancer xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice and the insulin-like growth factor axis. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 27342743.
  • 12
    Hammarsten J, Hogstedt B. Hyperinsulinaemia: A prospective risk factor for lethal clinical prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41: 28872895.
  • 13
    Ma J, Li H, Giovannucci E, Mucci L, Qiu W, Nguyen P, Gaziano JM, Pollak M, Stampfer M. A long term survival analysis of prediagnostic body mass index, plasma C-peptide levels, and prostate cancer specific mortality among men with prostate cancer. Lancet Oncol 2008, in press.
  • 14
    Freedland SJ. Obesity and prostate cancer: A growing problem. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 67636766.
  • 15
    Freedland SJ, Giovannucci E, Platz EA. Are findings from studies of obesity and prostate cancer really in conflict? Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 59.
  • 16
    Strom SS, Wang X, Pettaway CA, Logothetis CJ, Yamamura Y, Do KA, Babaian RJ, Troncoso P. Obesity, weight gain, and risk of biochemical failure among prostate cancer patients following prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 68896894.
  • 17
    Liao Y, Abel U, Grobholz R, Hermani A, Trojan L, Angel P, Mayer D. Up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor axis components in human primary prostate cancer correlates with tumor grade. Hum Pathol 2005; 36: 11861196.
  • 18
    Hellawell GO, Turner GD, Davies DR, Poulsom R, Brewster SF, Macaulay VM. Expression of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor is up-regulated in primary prostate cancer and commonly persists in metastatic disease. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 29422950.
  • 19
    De Meyts P, Whittaker J. Structural biology of insulin and IGF-1 receptors: Implications for drug design. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002; 1: 769783.
  • 20
    De Meyts P. Insulin and its receptor: Structure, function and evolution. Bioessays 2004; 26: 13511362.
  • 21
    Benyoucef S, Surinya KH, Hadaschik D, Siddle K. Characterization of insulin/IGF hybrid receptors: Contributions of the insulin receptor L2 and Fn1 domains and the alternatively spliced exon 11 sequence to ligand binding and receptor activation. Biochem J 2007; 403: 603613.
  • 22
    Belfiore A. The role of insulin receptor isoforms and hybrid insulin/IGF-I receptors in human cancer. Curr Pharm Des 2007; 13: 671686.
  • 23
    Li G, Barrett EJ, Wang H, Chai W, Liu Z. Insulin at physiological concentrations selectively activates insulin but not insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) or insulin/IGF-I hybrid receptors in endothelial cells. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 46904696.
  • 24
    Frasca F, Pandini G, Scalia P, Sciacca L, Mineo R, Costantino A, Goldfine ID, Belfiore A, Vigneri R. Insulin receptor isoform A, a newly recognized, high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol 1999; 19: 32783288.
  • 25
    Pandini G, Medico E, Conte E, Sciacca L, Vigneri R, Belfiore A. Differential gene expression induced by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-II through the insulin receptor isoform A. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 4217842189.
  • 26
    Sachdev D, Yee D. Disrupting insulin-like growth factor signaling as a potential cancer therapy. Mol Cancer Ther 2007; 6: 112.
  • 27
    Lu Y, Zi X, Zhao Y, Mascarenhas D, Pollak M. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling and resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin). J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 18521857.
  • 28
    Larsson O, Sandberg R. Lack of correct data format and comparability limits future integrative microarray research. Nat Biotechnol 2006; 24: 13221323.
  • 29
    Varambally S, Yu J, Laxman B, Rhodes DR, Mehra R, Tomlins SA, Shah RB, Chandran U, Monzon FA, Becich MJ, Wei JT, Pienta KJ, Ghosh D, Rubin MA, Chinnaiyan AM. Integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of prostate cancer reveals signatures of metastatic progression. Cancer Cell 2005; 8: 393406.
  • 30
    Dai M, Wang P, Boyd AD, Kostov G, Athey B, Jones EG, Bunney WE, Myers RM, Speed TP, Akil H, Watson SJ, Meng F. Evolving gene/transcript definitions significantly alter the interpretation of GeneChip data. Nucleic Acids Res 2005; 33: e175.
  • 31
    Sandberg R, Larsson O. Improved precision and accuracy for microarrays using updated probe set definitions. BMC Bioinform 2007; 8: 48.
  • 32
    Sbraccia P, D'Adamo M, Leonetti F, Caiola S, Iozzo P, Giaccari A, Buongiorno A, Tamburrano G. Chronic primary hyperinsulinaemia is associated with altered insulin receptor mRNA splicing in muscle of patients with insulinoma. Diabetologia 1996; 39: 220225.
  • 33
    Hsing AW, Gao YT, Chua S Jr, Deng J, Stanczyk FZ. Insulin-resistance and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 6771.
  • 34
    Hsing AW, Chua S Jr, Gao YT, Gentzschein E, Chang L, Deng J, Stanczyk FZ. Prostate cancer risk and serum levels of insulin and leptin: A population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 783789.
  • 35
    Stocks T, Lukanova A, Rinaldi S, Biessy C, Dossus L, Lindahl B, Hallmans G, Kaaks R, Stattin P. Insulin resistance is inversely related to prostate cancer: A prospective study in Northern Sweden. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 26782686.
  • 36
    Pandini G, Mineo R, Frasca F, Roberts CT Jr, Marcelli M, Vigneri R, Belfiore A. Androgens up-regulate the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 18491857.
  • 37
    Pandini G, Genua M, Frasca F, Squatrito S, Vigneri R, Belfiore A. 17beta-estradiol up-regulates the insulin-like growth factor receptor through a nongenotropic pathway in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 89328941.
  • 38
    St Onge MP, Janssen I, Heymsfield SB. Metabolic syndrome in normal-weight Americans: New definition of the metabolically obese, normal-weight individual. Diab Care 2004; 27: 22222228.
  • 39
    Saltiel AR, Kahn CR. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature 2001; 414: 799806.
  • 40
    Smith MR, Lee H, Nathan DM. Insulin sensitivity during combined androgen blockade for prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 13051308.
  • 41
    Zakikhani M, Dowling R, Fantus IG, Sonenberg N, Pollak M. Metformin is an AMP kinase-dependent growth inhibitor for breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 1026910273.
  • 42
    Algire C, Zakikhani M, Blouin M-J, Shuai JH, Pollak M. Metformin attenuates the stimulatory effect of a high energy diet on in vivo H59 carcinoma growth. Endocr Relat Cancer 2008, in press.
  • 43
    Pollak M. Targeting insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling in oncology. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2008, in press.