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Disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival in African American men, affected by prostate cancer

Authors

  • Ganna Chornokur,

    1. Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida
    2. The Center for Equal Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
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  • Kyle Dalton,

    1. Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida
    2. The Center for Equal Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
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  • Meghan E. Borysova,

    1. Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida
    2. The Center for Equal Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
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  • Nagi B. Kumar

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida
    2. The Center for Equal Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
    • Senior Member, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute at the University of South Florida College of Medicine, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612.
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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. PCa exhibits the most striking racial disparity, as African American men are at 1.4 times higher risk of being diagnosed, and 2–3 times higher risk of dying of PCa, compared to Caucasian men. The etiology of the disparity has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this article is to critically review the literature and summarize the most prominent PCa racial disparities accompanied by proposed explanations.

METHODS

The present literature on disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival of African American men affected by PCa was systematically reviewed. Original research as well as relevant review articles were included.

RESULTS

African American men persistently present with more advanced disease than Caucasian men, are administered different treatment regimens than Caucasian men, and have shorter progression-free survival following treatment. In addition, African American men report more treatment-related side-effects that translates to the diminished quality of life (QOL).

CONCLUSIONS

PCa racial disparity exists at stages of presentation, diagnosis, treatment regimens, and subsequent survival, and the QOL. The disparities are complex involving biological, socio-economic, and socio-cultural determinants. These mounting results highlight an urgent need for future clinical, scientific, and socio-cultural research involving transdisciplinary teams to elucidate the causes for PCa racial disparities. Prostate 71: 985–997, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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