c-Fes is a proto–oncogene encoded non-receptor protein–tyrosine kinase (PTK). However, genetic studies have indicated that it has anti-tumorigenic effects in certain cancers. The pathological and clinical significance of c-Fes in prostate cancer are unknown.
Expression of c-Fes was evaluated in normal glands, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), cancer cells in tissues of knock-in mouse adenocarcinoma prostate (KIMAP) model, and prostate cancer patients free of metastasis. Expression of c-Fes was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified by using the immunoreactivity score (IRS) (staining intensity × percentage of positive cells). Relationships between c-Fes expression and pT stage, Gleason's score (GS), and biochemical recurrence in patients who underwent radical surgery were also investigated.
In KIMAP, the percentage in normal glands, PIN and cancer cells positive for c-Fes expression were 0 (0/7), 25.0 (2/8), and 100% (7/7), respectively. In human tissues, c-Fes expression was also significantly higher in cancer cells than in normal cells and PIN, and it correlated with pT stage (P < 0.001) and GS (P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis showed that c-Fes expression was an independent predictor of poor outcome poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.11–9.37, P = 0.032).
The results suggested that c-Fes expression is a useful predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical surgery. The results also suggested that c-Fes is a potentially useful therapeutic target in prostate cancer and a predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Prostate 72:201–208, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.