• prostate cancer;
  • cell proliferation;
  • migration;
  • TGFβ;
  • inhibitor of differentiation (Id)



In prostate cancer cells, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibits proliferation in earlier stages of the disease; however, the cancer cells become refractory to growth inhibitory effects in advanced stages where TGFβ promotes cancer progression and metastasis. Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) family of closely related proteins (Id1–Id4) are dominant negative regulators and basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factors and in general promote proliferation, and inhibit differentiation. In the present study, we have investigated the role of Id1 and Id3 proteins in the growth inhibitory effects of TGFβ on prostate cancer cells.


The effect of TGF β on proliferation and Id1 and Id3 expression were investigated in PZ-HPV7, DU145, and PC3 cells. Id1 silencing through siRNA was also used in DU145 and PC3 cells to examine its role in anti-proliferative and migratory effects of TGFβ.


TGFβ increased expression of Id1 and Id3 in all cell lines followed by a later down regulation of Id1 in PZ-HPV7 expression and DU145 cells but not in PC3 cells. Id3 expression remained elevated in all three cell lines. This loss of Id1 protein correlated with an increase of CDKNI p21. Id1 knockdown in both DU145 and PC3 cells resulted in decreased proliferation. However, while TGFβ caused a further decrease in proliferation of DU145, but had no further effects in PC3 cells. Knockdown of Id1 or Id3 inhibited TGFβ1induced migration in PC3 cells.


These findings suggest an essential role of Id1 and Id3 in TGFβ1 effects on proliferation and migration in prostate cancer cells. Prostate 73: 624–633, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.