We present the assessment of the CASP4 fold recognition category. The tasks we had to execute include the splitting of multidomain targets into single domains, the classification of target domains in terms of prediction categories, the numerical evaluation of predictions, the mapping of numerical scores to quality indices, the ranking of predictors, the selection of top-performing groups, and the analysis and critical discussion of the state of the art in this field. The 125 fold recognition groups were assessed by a total score that summarizes their performance over all targets and a quality score reflecting the average quality of the submitted models. Most of the top-performing groups achieved respectable results on both scores simultaneously. Several groups submitted models that were much closer to the respective target structures than any of the known folds in the Protein Data Bank. The CASP4 assessment included the automated servers of the parallel CAFASP experiment. For the total score, the highest rank achieved by a fully automated server is 12. Two thirds of the predictors have rather low scores. Proteins 2001;Suppl 5:55–67. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.