Effects of the stabilization of the molten globule state on the folding mechanism of α-lactalbumin: A study of a chimera of bovine and human α-lactalbumin

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Abstract

The N-terminal half of the α-domain (residues 1 to 34) is more important for the stability of the acid-induced molten globule state of α-lactalbumin than the C-terminal half (residues 86 to 123). The refolding and unfolding kinetics of a chimera, in which the amino acid sequence of residues 1 to 34 was from human α-lactalbumin and the remainder of the sequence from bovine α-lactalbumin, were studied by stopped-flow tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy. The chimeric protein refolded and unfolded substantially faster than bovine α-lactalbumin. The stability of the molten globule state formed by the chimera was greater than that of bovine α-lactalbumin, and the hydrophobic surface area buried inside of the molecule in the molten globule state was increased by the substitution of residues 1 to 34. Peptide fragments corresponding to the A- and B-helix of the chimera showed higher helix propensity than those of the bovine protein, indicating the contribution of local interactions to the high stability of the molten globule state of the chimera. Moreover, the substitution of residues 1–34 decreased the free energy level of the transition state and increased hydrophobic surface area buried inside of the molecule in the transition state. Our results indicate that local interactions as well as hydrophobic interactions formed in the molten globule state are important in guiding the subsequent structural formation of α-lactalbumin. Proteins 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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