Generalized modeling of enzyme–ligand interactions using proteochemometrics and local protein substructures



Modeling and understanding protein–ligand interactions is one of the most important goals in computational drug discovery. To this end, proteochemometrics uses structural and chemical descriptors from several proteins and several ligands to induce interaction-models. Here, we present a new and generalized approach in which proteins varying greatly in terms of sequence and structure are represented by a library of local substructures. Using linear regression and rule-based learning, we combine such local substructures with chemical descriptors from the ligands to model binding affinity for a training set of hydrolase and lyase enzymes. We evaluate the predictive performance of these models using cross validation and sets of unseen ligand with unknown three-dimensional structure. The models are shown to generalize by outperforming models using descriptors from only proteins or only ligands, or models using global structure similarities rather than local similarities. Thus, we demonstrate that this approach is capable of describing dependencies between local structural properties and ligands in otherwise dissimilar protein structures. These dependencies are often, but not always, associated with local substructures that are in contact with the ligands. Finally, we show that strongly bound enzyme–ligand complexes require the presence of particular local substructures, while weakly bound complexes may be described by the absence of certain properties. The results demonstrate that the alignment-independent approach using local substructures is capable of describing protein–ligand interaction for largely different proteins and hence opens up for proteochemometrics-analysis of the interaction-space of entire proteomes. Current approaches are limited to families of closely related proteins. families of closely related proteins. Proteins 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.