Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens. L. monocytogenes Sortase A (SrtA) enzyme, which catalyzes the cell wall anchoring reaction of the leucine, proline, X, threonine, and glycine proteins (LPXTG, where X is any amino acid), is a target for the development of antilisteriosis drugs. In this study, the structure of the L. monocytogenes SrtA enzyme-substrate complex was obtained using homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Explicit enzyme-substrate interactions in the inactive and active forms of the enzyme were compared, based on 30ns simulations on each system. The active site arginine (Arg 197) was found to be able change its hydrogen donor interactions from the LP backbone carbonyl groups of the LPXTG substrate in the inactive form, to the TG backbone carbonyls in the active form, which could be of importance for holding the substrate in position for the catalytic process. Proteins 2011; © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.