The pH dependence of protein stability is defined by the difference in the number of protons bound to the folded state and to the denatured state ensemble (DSE) as a function of pH. In many cases, the protonation behavior can be described as the sum of a set of independently titrating residues; in this case, the pH dependence of stability reflects differences in folded and DSE pKa's. pH dependent stability studies have shown that there are energetically important interactions involving charged residues in the DSE of the N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9), which affect significantly the stability of the protein. The DSE of wild type NTL9 cannot be directly characterized under native conditions because of its high stability. A destabilized double mutant of NTL9, V3AI4A, significantly populates the folded state and the DSE in the absence of denaturant. The two states are in slow exchange on the nuclear magnetic resonance time scale, and diffusion measurements indicate that the DSE is compact. The DSE pKa's of all of the acidic residues were directly determined. The DSE pKa of Asp8 and Asp23 are depressed relative to model compounds values. Use of the mutant DSE pKa's together with known native state pKa's leads to a significantly improved agreement between the measured pH dependent stability and that predicted by the Tanford-Wyman linkage relationship. An analysis of the literature suggests that DSE interactions involving charged residues are relatively common and should be considered in discussions of protein stability. Proteins 2011; © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.