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Mapping disease-related missense mutations in the immunoglobulin-like fold domain of lamin A/C reveals novel genotype–phenotype associations for laminopathies



Mutations in A-type nuclear lamins cause laminopathies. However, genotype–phenotype correlations using the 340 missense mutations within the LMNA gene are unclear: partially due to the limited availability of three-dimensional structure. The immunoglobulin (Ig)-like fold domain has been solved, and using bioinformatics tools (including Polyphen-2, Fold X, Parameter OPtimized Surfaces, and PocketPicker) we characterized 56 missense mutations for position, surface exposure, change in charge and effect on Ig-like fold stability. We find that 21 of the 27 mutations associated with a skeletal muscle phenotype are distributed throughout the Ig-like fold, are nonsurface exposed and predicted to disrupt overall stability of the Ig-like fold domain. Intriguingly, the remaining 6 mutations clustered, had higher surface exposure, and did not affect stability. The majority of 9 lipodystrophy or 10 premature aging syndrome mutations also did not disrupt Ig-like fold domain stability and were surface exposed and clustered in distinct regions that overlap predicted binding pockets. Although buried, the 10 cardiac mutations had no other consistent properties. Finally, most lipodystrophy and premature aging mutations resulted in a -1 net charge change, whereas skeletal muscle mutations caused no consistent net charge changes. Since premature aging, lipodystrophy and the subset of 6 skeletal muscle mutations cluster tightly in distinct, charged regions, they likely affect lamin A/C –protein/DNA/RNA interactions: providing a consistent genotype–phenotype relationship for mutations in this domain. Thus, this subgroup of skeletal muscle laminopathies that we term the ‘Skeletal muscle cluster’, may have a distinct pathological mechanism. These novel associations refine the ability to predict clinical features caused by certain LMNA missense mutations. Proteins 2014; 82:904–915. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.