Structural and sequence features of two residue turns in beta-hairpins

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ABSTRACT

Beta-turns in beta-hairpins have been implicated as important sites in protein folding. In particular, two residue β-turns, the most abundant connecting elements in beta-hairpins, have been a major target for engineering protein stability and folding. In this study, we attempted to investigate and update the structural and sequence properties of two residue turns in beta-hairpins with a large data set. For this, 3977 beta-turns were extracted from 2394 nonhomologous protein chains and analyzed. First, the distribution, dihedral angles and twists of two residue turn types were determined, and compared with previous data. The trend of turn type occurrence and most structural features of the turn types were similar to previous results, but for the first time Type II turns in beta-hairpins were identified. Second, sequence motifs for the turn types were devised based on amino acid positional potentials of two-residue turns, and their distributions were examined. From this study, we could identify code-like sequence motifs for the two residue beta-turn types. Finally, structural and sequence properties of beta-strands in the beta-hairpins were analyzed, which revealed that the beta-strands showed no specific sequence and structural patterns for turn types. The analytical results in this study are expected to be a reference in the engineering or design of beta-hairpin turn structures and sequences. Proteins 2014; 82:1721–1733. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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