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Keywords:

  • Endocannabinoids;
  • FAAH-1 inhibitor;
  • glucuronide conjugate;
  • hepatocyte metabolites;
  • indole ketoamide;
  • monkey pharmacokinetics;
  • N-acetylcysteine conjugate;
  • sulfate conjugate

Abstract

MM-433593 is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase-1 (FAAH-1) with potential utility as an orally administered treatment of pain, inflammation, and other disorders. In this study, we investigated the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of MM-433593 in monkeys, and compared plasma and urine metabolites of this compound to the in vitro metabolites produced by monkey hepatocytes. Intravenous administration of MM-433593 to cynomolgus monkeys produced a rapid distribution phase and slower elimination phase with a mean systemic clearance rate of 8–11 mL/min/kg. Absolute oral bioavailability was determined to be 14–21% with maximum plasma concentrations reached ~3 h (Tmax) following a 10 mg/kg oral dose. The average terminal half-life of MM-433593 was 17–20 h, and there were no qualitative sex differences in the metabolite profile of MM-433593. The major site of metabolism was oxidation of the methyl group at the five position of the indole ring, which was confirmed by chromatography and mass spectrometry comparison to a synthesized authentic standard. This metabolite was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid and/or conjugated with sulfate, glucuronide, or glutathione. In all, 18 metabolites were found in plasma and urine. In vitro incubations of MM-433593 with monkey hepatocytes yielded 13 metabolites, all of which were found in vivo, indicating a good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo metabolism data. A comprehensive pathway for the metabolism of MM-433593 is proposed, including a plausible, five-step biotransformation for the formation of N-acetylcysteine conjugate metabolite (M18) from the hydroxylated parent (M5).