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Abstract

Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a relatively quick and straightforward method for quantifying risk. However, LOPA may be inadequate if used for compound failures when the required failure rate data are not available or when the failures are not independent. Fault tree analysis (FTA) can be used in these situations. FTA is designed to thoroughly and accurately evaluate compound failures and account for any dependencies between failures. FTA can augment LOPA, combining the best qualities of both methods into one powerful hybrid tool for risk analysis. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Process Saf Prog 23:185-190, 2004