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Procedural-based controls in layer of protection analysis



The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) book on the LOPA (layer of protection analysis) methodology gives little credit for procedural controls. In batch operations, startups or process shutdowns, the procedural controls are often the only available means of controlling the potential hazards. This article presents a methodology for the evaluation of procedural-based controls as potential independent layers of protection during a LOPA study. A checklist for the evaluation of procedural controls is presented as well as a few examples to demonstrate the methodology. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2008