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Abstract

The shipment of hazardous chemicals can pose signficant risk to the general public and the environment. These shipments are made in a variety of packages ranging from small bottles to large tank trucks, tank cars, and barges. However, the many standards and regulations that have been established to govern the design and use of these packages define what many consider to be the minimum requirements for risk management. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to more thoroughly identify the risk minimization options and verify the design of a package for a particular service. This method is based on the concept of a threat analysis of the proposed movement of the hazardous chemical. The threat analysis looks for unusual (but realistic) threats to the package that may result in the release of the hazardous chemical to the environment. Such unusual threats may include events such as: Dropping of the package during loading; Accident enroute; External fire during shipment; Random acts of vandalism (using the package as a practice target); Puncture (fork lift collision with package, rail/truck accident); Crushing (sudden starting or stopping). By conducting an engineering analysis of the strength and ability of the container to withstand these unusual events, a package design that can withstand the threats indentified in the threat analysis can be defined.