Larry Britton earned BS and PhD degrees in Fuel and Combustion Science at Leeds University, England. After four years as Research Fellow in Applied Electrostatics at Southampton University, he joined Union Carbide's Safety Research Laboratory in 1981 and is currently a Project Scientist. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Energy, a Member of AIChE and the Combustion Institute, and is a Chartered Engineer in the UK. He was cowinner of the AIChE “Bill Doyle” Award in 1987. Larry serves on the “Classification and Properties of Flammable Liquids” and “Properties of Hazardous Chemicals” committees of the NFPA.
Static hazards of drum filling. II. Electrostatic models: Theory and experiment
Article first published online: 17 JUN 2004
Copyright © 1988 American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Volume 7, Issue 1, pages 63–78, January 1988
How to Cite
Britton, L. G. and Smith, J. A. (1988), Static hazards of drum filling. II. Electrostatic models: Theory and experiment. Plant/Oper. Prog., 7: 63–78. doi: 10.1002/prsb.720070114
- Issue published online: 17 JUN 2004
- Article first published online: 17 JUN 2004
For drum filling, a demarcation of 50 pS/m (below which a liquid may accumulate hazardous static in a grounded drum) is conservative and takes account of the effects of temperature and/or charge density on relaxation rate. The worst-case conductivity as regards static accumulation rate is about 0.5 pS/m, but in practice this should not correspond to the worst-case charge generation rate. Published forms of the Schon equation are not conservative for smooth-bore pipes and hoses; a new equation is proposed. Certain rough-bore hoses containing an inner grounding spiral can generate almost as much charge as a microfilter. Theory and experiment are discussed with reference to published Codes and Guidelines; attention is given to filter placement and drum linings.