Involvement of a sodium channel mutation in pyrethroid resistance in Cydia pomonella L, and development of a diagnostic test



Populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) have developed resistance to several classes of insecticide such as benzoylureas, juvenile hormone analogues, ecdysone agonists and pyrethroids, but the corresponding resistance mechanisms have not been extensively studied. Knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides has been associated with point mutations in the para sodium channel gene in a great variety of insect pest species. We have studied two susceptible strains (S and Sv) and two resistant strains (Rt and Rv) of C pomonella that exhibited 4- and 80-fold resistance ratios to deltamethrin, respectively. The region of the voltage-dependent sodium channel gene which includes the position where kdr and super-kdr mutations have been found in Musca domestica L was amplified. The kdr mutation, a leucine-to-phenylalanine replacement at position 1014, was found only in the Rv strain. In contrast, the super-kdr mutation, a methionine-to-threonine replacement at position 918, was not detected in any C pomonella strain. These data allowed us to develop a PCR-based diagnostic test (PASA) to monitor the frequency of the kdr mutation in natural populations of C pomonella in order to define appropriate insecticide treatments in orchards. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry