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Keywords:

  • resistance factor;
  • zoxamide;
  • Pythium;
  • metalaxyl

Abstract

Cavity spot is one of the most common and serious diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L). The disease, caused by different species of Pythium, including P violae Chesters & Hickman, P sulcatum Pratt & Mitchell and P sylvaticum Campbell & Hendrix, leads to frequent high rejection rates during grading worldwide. In the area of the city of Québec, the disease is caused mainly by P sulcatum, P sylvaticum and P macrosporum Vaartaja & van der Plaats-Niterink. Cavity spot can be controlled with metalaxyl, but reports are emerging that this treatment show little or no efficacy in many regions. This situation reinforces the need for alternative fungicides. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the sensitivity of 14 pathogenic isolates of P sulcatum, P sylvaticum and P macrosporum collected from carrots produced in the area of the city of Québec to different broad-spectrum and oomycete-specific fungicides (chlorothalonil, etridiazole, fludioxonil, fosetyl-Al, metalaxyl, zoxamide), (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the fungicides in controlling cavity spot, and (3) to evaluate the risk of resistance development of isolates with the best-performing fungicide(s). The determination of EC50 for the fungicides tested showed that most isolates were highly sensitive to both metalaxyl and zoxamide but insensitive to fludioxonil, fosetyl-Al and chlorothalonil. In greenhouse assays, only zoxamide provided significant and consistent disease control as measured by the number of cavity spot lesions caused by P sulcatum. Investigations into the risk of resistance development to zoxamide showed that, for specific isolates, repeated exposure to the fungicide resulted in a loss of sensitivity. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry