Report of resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)



Susceptibilities of UK and mainland European samples of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid were investigated over a 7 year period. All 24 strains collected between 1997 and 2003 showed similar baseline levels of susceptibility to that of a known susceptible laboratory strain when exposed to a diagnostic concentration (128 mg L−1) of formulated imidacloprid. Two samples collected during 2004, one from the UK and one from The Netherlands, demonstrated reduced susceptibility at this concentration. Using dose–response assays, the presence of resistant individuals was disclosed in both these strains; some individuals were unaffected at doses high enough to induce phytotoxic effects. This report represents the first confirmed cases of neonicotinoid resistance inducing control failures in T. vaporariorum, and highlights a need for careful vigilance to sustain the effectiveness of imidacloprid and related neonicotinoid insecticides. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry