• neonicotinoid;
  • novaluron;
  • PIC triad;
  • Conotrachelus nenuphar;
  • vertical transmission;
  • curative activity


In this study the authors employed the plant-insect-chemistry (PIC) triad to investigate two novel life stage targets against the plum curculio (PC), Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in apple integrated pest management (IPM). Laboratory treated apple bioassays were used to determine if the insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides novaluron and tebufenozide have physiological effects on PC larvae following adult exposure. Curative activity bioassays were conducted for IGR, neonicotinoid, oxidiazine and organophosphate insecticides on PC larvae post-infestation, and fruit penetration profiles of insecticides were developed. The results revealed that novaluron exhibits activity on PC larvae via vertical transmission following exposure of mated females to treated substrate. Surface treatments of azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam to preinfested fruit resulted in significant reductions in larval emergence. For all compounds, 50% or more of the total recovered active ingredient was from apple skin, and for azinphos-methyl, indoxacarb and thiamethoxam it was greater than 80%. For azinphos-methyl, novaluron, methoxyfenozide and thiacloprid, however, active ingredient was recovered from every section of the apple, from skin to core. Implications for twenty-first century IPM are discussed. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry