Efficacy of five selected acaricides against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and their side effects on relevant natural enemies occurring in citrus orchards

Authors

  • Alberto Urbaneja,

    Corresponding author
    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    • Unidad de Entomología, Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Apartado Oficial, Carretera de Moncada—Náquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain.
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  • Sara Pascual-Ruiz,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    3. Departament de Ciències Agràries i del Medi Natural, Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Campus del Riu Sec, E-12071-Castelló de la Plana, Spain
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  • Tatiana Pina,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • Raquel Abad-Moyano,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • Pilar Vanaclocha,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • Helga Montón,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • Oscar Dembilio,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera de Moncada—Nàquera km. 4,5, E-46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
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  • Pedro Castañera,

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Departamento Biología de Plantas, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas CIB, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), C/Ramiro de Maeztu, 9. E-28040, Madrid, Spain
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  • Josep A. Jacas

    1. Unidad Asociada de Entomología IVIA-UJI-CIB CSIC, Spain
    2. Departament de Ciències Agràries i del Medi Natural, Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Campus del Riu Sec, E-12071-Castelló de la Plana, Spain
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Three groups of natural enemies are fundamental in citrus IPM in Spain: coccinellid and phytoseiid predators and hymenopteran parasitoids. Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest affecting citrus, for which biological control has not yet been achieved; therefore, acaricides are commonly used to control it. The goal of this study was to measure the efficacy of different acaricides on this mite and their side effects on three natural enemies relevant for citrus (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Aphidius colemani Viereck).

RESULTS: Some products proved highly effective against T. urticae and harmless to A. colemani (mineral oil, tebufenpyrad, clofentezine and fenazaquin). However, almost all products tested were slightly harmful for both the predators considered. Fenazaquin was even moderately harmful for N. californicus.

CONCLUSION: Further studies, like that presented here, are necessary to gain a better understanding of integrating biological and chemical controls. When considering both efficacy and side effects on beneficial arthropods, the best options would seem to be mineral oil, tebufenpyrad and clofentezine. However, it is urgent to complete testing of the side effects of the acaricides used in citrus. This question is crucial if the fact that two recently introduced Tetranychidae are being controlled in citrus by chemical means exclusively is considered. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

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