Multifunctionalised benzoxazinones in the systems Oryza sativa–Echinochloa crus-galli and Triticum aestivum–Avena fatua as natural-product-based herbicide leads



BACKGROUND: Fifteen novel derivatives of D-DIBOA, including aromatic ring modifications and the addition of side chains in positions C-2 and N-4, had previously been synthesised and their phytotoxicity on standard target species (STS) evaluated. This strategy combined steric, electronic, solubility and lipophilicity requirements to achieve the maximum phytotoxic activity. An evaluation of the bioactivity of these compounds on the systems Oryza sativa–Echinochloa crus-galli and Triticum aestivum–Avena fatua is reported here.

RESULTS: All compounds showed inhibition profiles on the two species Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Avena fatua L. The most marked effects were caused by 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA, 6F-4Val-D-DIBOA, 6Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA and 6Cl-4Val-D-DIBOA. The IC50 values for the systems Echinochloa crus-galliOryza sativa and Avena fatua–Triticum aestivum for all compounds were compared. The compound that showed the greatest selectivity for the system Echinochloa crus-galliOryza sativa was 8Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA, which was 15 times more selective than the commercial herbicide propanil (Cotanil-35). With regard to the system Avena fatua–Triticum aestivum, the compounds that showed the highest selectivities were 8Cl-4Val-D-DIBOA and 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA. The results obtained for 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA are of great interest because of the high phytotoxicity to Avena fatua (IC50 = 6 µM, r2 = 0.9616).

CONCLUSION: The in vitro phytotoxicity profiles and selectivities shown by the compounds described here make them candidates for higher-level studies. 8Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA for the system Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa and 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA for Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum were the most interesting compounds. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry