BACKGROUND: Bait-formulated spinosad is currently being introduced for housefly (Musca domestica L.) control around the world. Spinosad resistance was evaluated in a multiresistant field population and strains derived from this by selection with insecticides. Constitutive and spinosad-induced expression levels of three cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3, previously reported to be involved in insecticide resistance, were examined.
RESULTS: In 2004 a baseline for spinosad toxicity of Danish houseflies where all field populations were considered to be susceptible was established. In the present study, females of a multiresistant field population 791a were, however, 27-fold spinosad resistant at LC50, whereas 791a male houseflies were susceptible. Strain 791a was selected with spinosad, thiamethoxam, fipronil and imidacloprid, resulting in four strains with individual characteristics. Selection of 791a with spinosad did not alter spinosad resistance in either males or females, but counterselected against resistance to the insecticides thiamethoxam and imidacloprid targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A synergist study with piperonyl butoxide, as well as gene expression studies of CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3, indicated a partial involvement of cytochrome P450 genes in spinosad resistance.
CONCLUSION: This study reports female-linked spinosad resistance in Danish houseflies. Negative cross-resistance was observed between spinosad and neonicotinoids in one multiresistant housefly strain. Spinosad resistance involved alterations of cytochrome P450 gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry