• Trichogramma achaeae;
  • Necremnus artynes;
  • Stenomesius japonicus;
  • Agathis fuscipennis;
  • Nesidiocoris tenuis;
  • Macrolophus pygmaeus;
  • Bacillus thuringiensis;
  • entomopathogenic nematodes


Since its detection in the Mediterranean basin at the end of 2006 and later in other European countries, the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), has become a serious threat to tomato crops. In newly infested areas, it is especially problematic during the first years of its presence. Nevertheless, after 2–3 years, the incidence of T. absoluta has become less severe in certain areas. There are several factors contributing to this decline, such as the increase in growers' knowledge of pest behaviour and biology and the correct application of integrated pest control strategies. The impact of opportunistic native natural enemies (fortuitous biological control) should be considered as one of the key factors in this decline. In this review, available information on indigenous natural enemies is updated, and the current pest management approaches used against T. absoluta are addressed. Finally, future scenarios for biological control of this pest are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry