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Keywords:

  • Ceratitis capitata;
  • attract and kill;
  • bait station;
  • mass trapping;
  • fruit fly

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The control of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann traditionally has relied on chemical control with organophosphate insecticides. The use of many of these substances has been banned by new European directives; therefore, the development of new control methods is essential to manage this pest. Bait sprays with spinosad, mass trapping and lure-and-kill techniques have been the base for new integrated pest management programmes. In this study, a 2 year field trial was conducted in two citrus areas to test the efficacy of attract-and-kill devices against mass trapping and spinosad-plus-bait treatments.

RESULTS: The Magnet® MED attract-and-kill device, Spintor® treatments and mass trapping achieved good control of C. capitata populations, as confirmed by low percentages of damaged fruit in the assessments performed during the harvest period. On the other hand, fly population levels on plots treated with other attract-and-kill prototype devices increased more than threefold by comparison with the populations recorded in the rest of the treated plots. The same effect was observed for fruit damage, with 6–8 times less damage with Magnet® MED and spinosad treatments, respectively, than with the attract-and-kill prototype devices.

CONCLUSION: By using an effective attractant, conventional trapping systems can be replaced with cheaper and easier-to-handle attract-and-kill devices. The efficacy of these devices and their advantages over conventional mass trapping systems are discussed. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry